Most nouns are easily made to mean more than one. You simply add “s.”

dog – dogs

cat – cats

book – books

Then there are those nouns that end in ch, s, ss, sh, x, and zz. Here we add “es.”

beach – beaches

lens – lenses

mess – messes

lash – lashes

box – boxes

fizz – fizzes

If a word has one or more consonants before ending in “y,” we change the “y” to “i” and add “es.”

lady – ladies

buddy – buddies

body – bodies

doily – doilies

If a word has a vowel before the final “y,” simply add “s.”

key – keys

play – plays

buy- buys

toy – toys

eye – eyes

Then we have some irregular cases that make life fun for us.

man – men

woman – women

child – children

foot – feet

louse – lice

house – hice ( hahaha) Just testing you to see if you’re paying attention. (Of course it’s house – houses.)

goose – geese

moose – meese (just kidding again)

Moose is one of those words that stays the same in singular and in plural forms. Other words that don’t change are:






and probably several others.

Here are some that are quite different. It seems the rules are all mixed up.

Potato and tomato both add “es” to become potatoes and tomatoes, and yet there are many words that end in “o” and simply add “s” to make the plural.

avocado – avocados

mango – mangos (These two are controversial and can be spelled avocadoes and mangoes, but my preference is without the “e.”)

piano – pianos

photo – photos (Please do not add and apostrophe before the “s.” It is not photo’s.)

radio – radios

Numbers, such as when you refer to decades simply add “s.” Not apostrophe “s.”



early 1900s

Most words ending in “f” change the “f” to “v” and add “es.”

leaf – leaves

life – lives

thief – thieves


A few special ones simply add “s.”

chief – chiefs

fife – fifes

belief – beliefs

roof – roofs (it used to be rooves about 300 years ago)


13 thoughts on “Plurals

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